Curtin, ‘Medical education and urban planning during the warm Africa’, AHR, ninety, 3 (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans ce Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (step 1914), 140-1

96 AOM, AP648, Decree on creation of a Commune at Brazzaville, 5 October 1911; message from Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Annual statement from Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 36. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Bien au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Au Congo, 121. one hundred Colonel Moll, Une dme de- colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De- Bordeaux bien free online indian chat room au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, step 32-3, step 3 8 ^ 0 . 101 To own urban buildings from inside the colonial Africa, get a hold of, Philip D. Betts, Not sure dimensions: west overseas empires throughout the twentieth century (Minneapolis: University out of Minnesota Force, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion sur l’architecture europeenne ce enough time de la cote africaine an effective partir de l’exemple de los angeles Guinee’, inside the Almeida-Topor and you can Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes sur VAfrique, 81-92; and Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition on the provider out of modernity: frameworks and urbanism when you look at the French colonial coverage, 1900-1930’, Journal of modern Background, 59 (June 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 On the history and significance of the latest Fourteenth from July inside the Brazzaville, select Phyllis M. Martin, ‘National getaways switched: the newest fourteenth regarding July within the Brazzaville’, papers displayed at thirty-seventh annual appointment of the African Education Association, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne la region de- Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 36. 106 Address out of Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and you can Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige mais aussi Portugais dentro de Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The perception off colonialism into the health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical training and urban planning’, 594-eight. 110 Ibid., 598-609; along with Headrick, ‘The effect away from colonialism to your health’, 143-4, 801-2. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport sur los angeles part de- Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. We, 398. 113 Challaye, Ce Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne la region de- Brazzaville’; as well as AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Administrator so you can Administrator-General when you look at the Libreville, thirteen July 1901. 116 Cited when you look at the Headrick, ‘The impression out-of colonialism for the health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 Could possibly get 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Annual reports ‘Oeuvres de los angeles Sainte-Enfance’, 24 October 1901,step 1 January 1903,ten November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue is actually a reference to manioc bread. 120 AOM, TP152, initial show, Mission Fillon, Declaration regarding Meters. Henri to the Brazzaville employees, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9.

Fehderau, The origin and growth of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) means that Kituba are a vocabulary of slave-trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Mission Record, 31 Can get 1908; Roentgen. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine. 124 Find, for example, J.-P. Chretien and you can Grams. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), The production of tribalism when you look at the southern area Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Gray, Adaptation and you can social name: producing national room when you look at the outlying France and you can colonial space into the rural Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana College Center on Global Alter and you will Business Serenity, 1994); Terence Ranger, The newest development away from society from inside the colonial Africa’, within the Hobsbawm and you can Ranger (eds.), The newest advancement out of heritage, 211-62, he have revised while the innovation regarding traditions revisited: the outcome off colonial Africa’, within the Terence Ranger and Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Authenticity while the county inside twentieth 100 years Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. Throughout the revision regarding their article, Ranger might have been swayed, among others, from the Benedict Anderson, Thought groups: reflections with the sources and you can give from nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, The new root from Kituba and Lingala’, Journal away from African Dialects and you can Linguistics, 12, 1 (September 1991), 47-77, means that the diffusion are far more pertaining to foreign rail gurus from the down Congo. 126 ASMF, Elizabeth l l . Brev fran Kongo, Lindgren so you’re able to SMF, 18 Oct 1911; B and Elizabeth. no. step 1, Korr., Lindgren so you’re able to SMF, eleven November 1911; F. zero. 1, Dagbok, 22 February 1914; Brev fran Kongo, G. An excellent. Hult so you can SMF, 11 January 1918. 127 Message of Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Declaration about Pond section, Brazzaville, May 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y a beneficial-t-il des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The root away from Kituba and you may Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and you will ‘Bondjo ethnicity and you may colonial imagination’, Canadian Record off African Knowledge, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, twenty-five (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Purpose Log, 30 Could possibly get 1908,twenty five September 1910,1 December 1913. 131 Discover sections step 3 and you can 4. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans ce Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, 27 (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), fifty, 72-step three,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 29, 31. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Management statement, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban room, commercial day, and you can salary work inside Africa’, within his Fight towards urban area, 23. 2 step one